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发布人:晴思小雨   发布时间: 2019-12-12 10:58:10

【NPR听力】科学家在血液里面发现了和年龄相关的蛋白质波动

【NPR听力】科学家在血液里面发现了和年龄相关的蛋白质波动
Scientists Find Surprising Age-Related Protein Waves In Blood

来源:NPR,翻译:晴思小雨
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Scientists know that if they transfuse blood from a young mouse to an old one, that can stave off or even reverse some signs of aging. What they don't know is what in the blood is responsible for this. Researchers now report that they have identified hundreds of proteins in human blood that wax and wane in surprising ways as we age. NPR's science correspondent Richard Harris reports that could provide important clues to maintaining health.
科学家们早就知道,如果将年轻的老鼠的血液输到老的老鼠身上,就可以避免甚至逆转某些衰老迹象,但他们一直不知道在血液中到底有什么东西会导致这种现象的发生。现在,研究人员报告说,他们已经找到了成百上千的蛋白质,这些蛋白质在血液中的数量会随着年龄的增长以惊人的方式涨落。 NPR科学频道记者理查德·哈里斯(Richard Harris)报告说,这可能为健康保养方面提供重要的思路。

RICHARD HARRIS, BYLINE: It's no secret that hormones that circulate in our blood change over the years. They're far from alone. Scientists have discovered hundreds of blood proteins that change as we age. Tony Wyss-Coray at Stanford University and his colleagues used a technique that allowed them to look at nearly 3,000 proteins at a time and followed their progress as a function of age.
RICHARD HARRIS, BYLINE: 多年来,在我们血液中循环的荷尔蒙发生变化已经不是什么秘密了,这种现象不是特例。科学家发现了数百种随着年龄增长而变化的血液蛋白质。斯坦福大学的Tony Wyss-Coray和他的同事通过一种可以一次性查看近3,000种蛋白质的技术来跟踪蛋白质随着年龄的增长而发生的变化。

TONY WYSS-CORAY: When we went into this, we assumed you age gradually so we would see these changes taking place relatively steadily as individuals get older.
TONY WYSS-CORAY: 当我们开始这项研究时,我们以为随着个人年龄的增长,这些变化会是一个相对稳定的渐变过程。

HARRIS: Instead, Wyss-Coray and his colleagues report in Nature Medicine that these proteins change in three distinct waves, the first of which happens during our 30s.
HARRIS: 但实际结果恰恰相反。根据怀斯·科瑞(Wyss-Coray)和他的同事发表在《自然医学》杂志上的论文,血液中这些蛋白质的变化有三个不同的波次,第一波变化发生在我们30多岁的时候。

WYSS-CORAY: So we found this first wave very early very surprisingly, and then we found a second wave around 60 and the third one, the most prominent one, really, at around 80 years of age.
WYSS-CORAY: 因此,我们非常惊奇地发现,第一波次变化发生的时间竟然这么早(30多岁),后来我们发现第二波次的变化大约发生在60岁左右,而第三波次的变化,也是最显著的变化,发生在80岁左右。

HARRIS: These observations raise a host of questions about the biology of aging. Like, what's going on in our 30s? Nobody's ever seen that before, he says.
HARRIS: 这些发现引发了许多有关衰老生物学的问题。比如说,在我们30多岁时身体上面发生了什么?他说,以前从来没有人注意到这些问题。

WYSS-CORAY: And that's where we want to hone in and try to understand that moving forward.
WYSS-CORAY: 这就是我们想要进一步研究和搞明白的地方。

HARRIS: And what do the changes actually mean?
HARRIS: 这些变化到底上意味着什么呢?

WYSS-CORAY: Most of the proteins in the blood are actually from other tissue sources. So we can start to ask, where do these proteins come from? And if they change with age and they come, for example, from the liver, that would tell us that the liver is aging.
WYSS-CORAY: 血液中的大多数蛋白质实际上来自身体上的其他组织。所以我们可以首先这样想,这些随着年龄而变化蛋白质是从哪里来的?如果它们来自肝脏,那就说明我们的肝脏正在衰老。

HARRIS: Eventually, Wyss-Coray says, he would like to compare a patient's blood protein pattern with a pattern that's normally seen in people of that age to produce a personalized aging clock.
HARRIS: 怀斯·科瑞(Wyss-Coray)说,他的终极目标,是将患者的血液蛋白模式与该年龄段正常人的血液蛋白模式进行比较,从而得出这个患者的个性化的衰老时钟。

WYSS-CORAY: Where I can tell you, based on the composition of your blood, your kidney seems to be aging faster than it should.
WYSS-CORAY: 我可以告诉您的是,根据您的血液成分分析,您肾脏的衰老似乎比预期的要快。

HARRIS: Thinking back to those age-reversing experiments in mice, it might also be possible to isolate proteins in the blood that contribute to that effect. Research groups are already studying proteins one by one to find those that can influence healthy aging. And Wyss-Coray founded a company that's actually running an Alzheimer's study based on this general idea. With this flood of new data, it's a daunting task to figure out whether each of these proteins causes age-related changes, slows them down or is merely a result of aging.
HARRIS: 回想一下那些在老鼠身上进行的逆转年龄的实验,也许有可能在血液中分离出这种有逆转衰老作用的蛋白质。研究小组已经在逐一研究分析这些蛋白质,以期发现可以影响健康衰老的蛋白质。怀斯·科瑞(Wyss-Coray)创立了一家公司,该公司正是根据这一总体思路进行来阿尔茨海默氏症的研究,弄清楚这些蛋白质中的每一种蛋白质是否会引起与年龄相关的变化,会减慢衰老的速度,或者蛋白质本身就是衰老的结果。分析这些海量的新数据是一项艰巨的任务。

WYSS-CORAY: But we're getting closer by using this method, I think.
WYSS-CORAY: 但是,我认为,通过使用这种方法,我们离我们的目标越来越近了。

TOSHIKO TANAKA: This is really the first step in categorizing and cataloging the age-related biomarkers.
TOSHIKO TANAKA: 这实际上是对与年龄相关的生物标记物进行分类的第一步。

HARRIS: Toshiko Tanaka at the National Institute on Aging has also been studying proteins in the blood. Her group published a study last year. She says the field is suddenly making rapid progress.
HARRIS: 国立衰老研究所的田中俊子(Toshiko Tanaka)也一直在研究血液中的蛋白质。她的小组在去年发表了一项研究。她说,这个领域突然有了长足的进步。

TANAKA: One of the great things about these advancements in technology is that it's becoming a lot cheaper (laughter) to measure a lot of these molecules, so bigger studies and more studies can assess the same proteins.
TANAKA: 技术进步的一大好处是,现在大批量的测量这些蛋白质分子比原来便宜多了(笑声),因此在研究相同的蛋白质上面,有越来越大和越来越多的研究开展开来。

HARRIS: That's an important step to validate discoveries. But it's also the case that there is a vast sea of blood proteins and other constituents to explore, any of which may be involved in health and disease. So Tanaka isn't expecting quick answers.
HARRIS: 对于已经发现的和健康有关的蛋白质做验证是重要的一步。但是,还有大量的血液蛋白和其他成分需要去探索,其中任何一种都可能与健康和疾病有关。因此,田中并不期待快速的答案。

TANAKA: I hope by the time my kids are old, this is something that we can improve their health trajectory.
TANAKA: 我希望我的孩子长大后,这项研究的结果可以帮助他们益寿延年。

HARRIS: Richard Harris, NPR News.
HARRIS: 这里是NPR科学频道记者理查德·哈里斯(Richard Harris)报道。

 

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