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双语阅读 | 中美创新对比:如今谁在山寨谁?

 


中国正逐渐甩掉全世界最大科技山寨国的名声,很多中国公司在全新的服务和商业模式上已经一马当先。

 

Photo credit: Getty Images

 

China is gradually shedding its reputation as the world’s technology copycat. It still spawns lookalikes, whether they be GoPro-style action cameras or Didi Chuxing, a ride-hailing app that looked awfully like Uber until it added Chinese characteristics and vanquished its former rival. But some Chinese companies are also leading the way in new services and business models.
中国正逐渐甩掉全世界最大科技山寨国的名声。一些中国企业依然让人有雷同的感觉,无论是与GoPro类似的运动摄像机,还是最初像极了Uber、直到加入中国特色并打败了它的叫车软件滴滴出行(Didi Chuxing)。但还有很多中国公司在全新的服务和商业模式上已经一马当先。

 

There are several reasons. Competing in a protected space — the likes of Facebook, Twitter, and Google’s search engine are blocked in China — mitigates risk and encourages experimentation. So too does a big market. But the move toward pioneering also reflects a generational change, says Derrick Xiong, chief marketing officer of drone maker Ehang.
其中原因有很多。在受到保护的领域——中国屏蔽了Facebook、Twitter和谷歌(Google)搜索引擎——竞争,降低了风险,并鼓励了实验。大型市场也起到同样的作用。但无人机制造商亿航(Ehang)的首席营销官熊逸放表示,中国企业迈向领先地位也反映了一种代际改变。


 

The new generation of entrepreneurs, “the post-90s, were born to be global,” he says; “they have never experienced hard times in China so they have a completely different mindset” more akin to that of their peers in the US or Europe than their parents.
他表示,新一代企业家都是“90后,出生在全球化时代”;“他们从未经历过中国的苦日子,因此他们拥有完全不同的思维”,比他们的父辈更接近美国或欧洲同行的思维。

Here are some sectors in which made-in-China innovations are blazing a trail.
以下是中国首开先河的一些领域。

共享单车
Bike-sharing

China has embraced bike-sharing, pioneering a dockless model that offers cyclists advantages over comparable services in London and New York: bikes are unlocked using mobile apps, and can be picked up and left anywhere. Many are even GPS-tracked. Mobike (orange) and Ofo (yellow) have led the pack, followed by Xiaoming’s blue bikes. One financier, only half joking, opines that the only barrier to entry will be when they run out of colours.
中国迎来了共享单车时代,引领了无桩单车模式,为骑行者提供了比伦敦和纽约同类型服务更好的体验:使用者可以通过手机应用解锁单车,可以在任何地方骑走或停放单车。很多单车甚至配有GPS定位。摩拜(Mobike,车身为橙色)和ofo(车身为黄色)是最大的两家。一名金融家半开玩笑半认真地说,进入该领域唯一的障碍将是颜色不够了。

 

A subsequent crackdown by regulators, irked at the piles of dumped bikes littering cities, portends potholes on the road. But that hasn’t deterred the like of LimeBike from rolling out a similar service in the US states of California, North Carolina and Florida following the dockless, QR code-based Chinese model.
成堆的单车像垃圾一样堆放在各个城市,让恼火的监管者随后决定对共享单车市场予以整顿,这预示着共享单车前进的道路上面临坑洼。但这并未阻止LimeBike之类的共享单车追随无桩、扫码的中国模式,在美国加州、北卡罗来纳州和佛罗里达州推出类似服务。

 

二维码
QR codes


For much of China, the QR code — a type of barcode — is the key that unlocks the digital world. A swipe of the matrix with a mobile device lets a user hire a bike, pay for goods and grab a new contact’s details: why swap business cards when you can just hover your phone over that of your new acquaintance?
对于中国大多数地区,二维码(条形码的一种)是解锁数字世界的钥匙。用户用移动设备扫一扫这个矩形图案,就可以使用共享单车、为商品付款、以及获取新联系人的信息:当你只要用手机扫一下新朋友的手机就能获取对方信息时,何必要交换名片呢?

 

Companies in the US, where the QR code was dismissed in 2013, now seem to be changing their view. Snapchat picked up the idea in 2015, allowing users to follow one another as easily as their WeChat peers by scanning each others’ QR codes, and proceeded to facilitate their use to access websites. Facebook this year is piloting ‘rewards’ QR codes to secure discounts in certain shops, while Spotify has adopted the technology to allow users to share music.
二维码2013年在美国没有引起重视,如今美国企业似乎正在转变观点。Snapchat于2015年采纳了这个想法,允许用户通过扫描其他人的二维码来关注对方(就像微信(WeChat)中一样方便),并进而利用二维码为用户访问网站提供便利。今年Facebook试推出“奖励”二维码,用户在特定商店出示这种二维码可获得折扣,同时Spotify采用了二维码技术帮助客户分享音乐。

 

社交媒体
Social media


WhatsApp’s launch last month of business accounts showed the US messaging app taking another step down the path forged by Chinese peer WeChat.
WhatsApp上个月推出企业账户,这表明这款美国短信应用在由中国同行微信开辟的道路上又前进了一步。

WeChat, Tencent’s chat and social media app, has long courted the business world. It is how government, celebrities and businesses from Burberry to Mondelez connect to customers in the Chinese social media space — spicing up their chat with cool fashion show snaps, special offers and sales promotions — and post information or news. WeChat has more than 20m ‘official accounts’, according to industry estimates, though not all are verfied.
微信是腾讯(Tencent)旗下的聊天和社交媒体应用,长期以来一直力求获得企业青睐。在中国,政府、名人以及从博柏利(Burberry)到亿滋(Mondelez)等企业与社交媒体中的客户建立联系(放出超酷的秀场照片、特别折扣和促销活动来诱惑客户)、发布信息或新闻的方式就是通过微信。根据业内估计,微信如今拥有超过2000万个“公众号”,不过并非所有账号都得到了认证。

 

WhatsApp is now jumping on that bandwagon, following in the footsteps of WeChat. In an effort to help businesses keep in touch with their customers and to make money the Facebook-owned app has begun offering ‘verifed profile’ accounts, so customers know they are contacting the right shop or service.
WhatsApp如今正准备追逐这股浪潮,沿着微信留下的脚印前进。为了帮助企业与客户保持联系并赚取利润,这款Facebook旗下的应用开始提供“认证”账户,这样一来客户就知道他们联系的不是山寨店或冒牌服务。

 

零售
Retail


The world drew a collective gasp when Amazon splashed out $13.7bn in June to buy Whole Foods, bringing its cut-throat online competition to the bricks-and-mortar world of artisanal breads and organic kale. But Chinese rivals were ahead of the game. Ecommerce giant Alibaba snapped up stakes in domestic supermarket group Lianhua in May and before that, in department store Intime. JD.com, which operates a similar asset-heavy model to Amazon, has outlined plans for a massive bricks and mortar presence.
今年6月,当亚马逊(Amazon)斥资137亿美元收购全食(Whole Foods)、把它残酷无情的线上竞争带到售卖手工面包和有机甘蓝的实体店时,整个世界倒吸了一口气。但中国竞争对手已在更早的时候加入了这场竞赛。电商巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba)于5月入股中国国内超市集团联华(Lianhua),在那之前还入股了百货商场运营商银泰(Intime)。采用与亚马逊类似的重资产运营模式的京东(JD.com),已经制定了大规模涉足实体店的计划。

 

Alibaba calls the model “new retail”, fusing the physical and online worlds to better please customers — try on a frock, buy cat food from the store for later delivery and a rice box to takeaway there and then — and ultimately amass more data for itself.
阿里巴巴把这种模式称为“新零售”,把实体店和线上世界结合在一起,以更好地取悦客户——在店内试穿连衣裙、买猫粮,商家随后送货上门,或点份外卖立即带走——并最终为自己积累更多数据。

 

接下来呢?
What next?


There are plenty of innovations still to tap or expand. Mobile payments in the US are a fraction of those in China, where the market was worth $8.8tn last year, according to iResearch. Gifting digital money — for instance, at Chinese new year — is taking hold elsewhere, already adapted in India via Tencent-backed Hike, a New Delhi-based messaging unicorn.
现在还有很多创新有待挖掘或拓展。美国移动支付市场规模远不及中国,根据艾瑞咨询(iResearch)的数据,去年中国移动支付市场价值8.8万亿美元。(中国人在比如春节时相互发放的)电子红包正在其他地区生根开花:由腾讯注资的Hike(总部位于新德里的短信应用独角兽)已经在印度推出电子红包服务。

 

But arguably the most covetable trend in China is the most basic: education. China last year produced roughly nine times as many graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics as the US. Even allowing for China’s bigger population, it still punches heavily above its weight, suggesting lot of room for many more innovations to be birthed in China.
但是中国可以说最令人垂涎的趋势是一样最基本的东西:教育。去年中国培养的科学、技术、工程和数学方面的毕业生(STEM Grads)是美国的8倍多。即使考虑中国庞大的人口基数,这种差距也是不成比例的:这意味着还会有更多创新诞生在中国。

 

 

 

内容转自: FT每日英语英国《金融时报》

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